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NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

ABC India Ltd.

You can view the entire text of Notes to accounts of the company for the latest year
Market Cap. (₹) 42.17 Cr. P/BV 1.43 Book Value (₹) 54.33
52 Week High/Low (₹) 81/38 FV/ML 10/1 P/E(X) 7.34
Bookclosure 25/09/2019 EPS (₹) 10.61 Div Yield (%) 0.00
Year End :2018-03 

1. Corporate information

ABC India Limited (‘ABCIL’ or ‘the Company’) is a public Company and incorporated in India under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. ABCIL has been a pioneer in the field of Logistics since its inception in India. ABCIL is listed with premier stock exchanges, namely, BSE and CSE. Its registered office is situated at P-10 New CIT Road Kolkata-700073 and corporate office at 40/8 Ballygunge Circular Road Kolkata - 700 019. The financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2018 were approved by the Board of Directors on May 26, 2018.

2. Use of estimates and judgements

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

a) Judgements in applying accounting policies

The judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see note below), that the Company has made in the process of applying its accounting policies and that have a significant effect on the amounts recognised in these financial statements pertain to the following:

i) Revenue recognition

Contract revenue is recognised using the percentage of completion method as construction progresses. The percentage of completion is estimated by reference to the stage of the projects determined based on the proportion of costs incurred to date and the total estimated costs to complete.

ii) Recognition of deferred tax assets

The extent to which deferred tax assets can be recognised is based on an assessment of the probability of the Company’s future taxable income against which the deferred tax assets can be utilized.

iii) Classification of leases

The Company enters into leasing arrangements for various assets. The classification of the leasing arrangement as a finance lease or operating lease is based on an assessment of several factors, including, but not limited to, transfer of ownership of leased asset at end of lease term, lessee’s option to purchase and estimated certainty of exercise of such option, proportion of lease term to the asset’s economic life, proportion of present value of minimum lease payments to fair value of leased asset and extent of specialized nature of the leased asset.

b) Key sources of estimation uncertainty

The following are the key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that may have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities with in the next financial year.

(i) Revenue and inventories

The Company recognizes Contract revenue using the percentage of completion method. This requires forecasts to be made of total budgeted cost with the outcomes of underlying construction and service contracts, which require assessments and judgements to be made on changes in work scopes, claims (compensation, rebates etc.) and other payments to the extent they are probable and they are capable of being reliably measured. For the purpose of making estimates for claims, the Company used the available contractual and historical information.

(ii) Useful lives of property, plant and equipment:

PPE represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset’s expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual value of the asset are determined by the management when the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their lives, such as change in technology.

(iii) Estimation of Defined benefit obligations

The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan and the present value of the gratuity obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each financial year end.

The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. In determining the appropriate discount rate for plans, the actuary considers the interest rates of government bonds.

The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables. Those mortality tables tend to change only at interval in response to demographic changes. Future salary increases and gratuity increases are based on expected future inflation rates.

(iv) Provisions and contingent liabilities

The Company has ongoing litigations with various regulatory authorities and third parties. Where an outflow of funds is believed to be probable and are liable estimate of the outcome of the dispute can be made based on management’s assessment of specific circumstances of each dispute and relevant external advice, management provides for its best estimate of the liability. Such accruals are by nature complex and can take number of years to resolve and can involve estimation uncertainty. Information about such litigations is provided in notes to the financial statements.

(d) The Company has only one class of equity shares. The Company declares and pays dividend in Indian rupees. The holders of equity shares are entitled to receive dividend as declared from time to time and are entitled to one vote per share.

(e) In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential dues. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.

(f) Shareholders holding more than 5 % of the equity shares in the Company :

1. Contingent liabilities and commitments (to the extent not provided for)

The amounts shown in I(i) above represent the best possible estimates arrived at on the basis of available information. The uncertainties and timing of the cash flows are dependent on the outcome of different legal processes which have been invoked by the Company or the claimants, as the case may be and, therefore, cannot be estimated accurately. The Company does not expect any reimbursement in respect of above contingent liabilities.

In the opinion of the management, no provision is considered necessary for the disputes mentioned above on the ground that there are fair chances of successful outcome of the appeals.

2. The company has not received any memorandum (as required to be filed by the suppliers with the notified authority under the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006) claiming their status as on 31st March 2018 as micro, small and medium enterprises. Consequently, the amount due to micro and small enterprises as per requirement of Section 22 of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 is Nil (31st March 2017 - Nil) (1st April 2016 - Nil)

3. Details of Loans given, Investments made and Guarantee given covered u/s 186 (4) of the Companies Act, 2013:

Investments made are given under the respective heads (Refer Note 5 (i) and (ii)).

All loans as disclosed in respective notes (Refer note 13 and 36(7) are provided for business purposes.

(a) Construction Contracts

On the balance sheet date, the Company reports the net contract position for each contract as either an asset or a liability. A contract represents an asset where costs incurred plus recognised profits (less recognised losses) exceed progress billings; a contract represents a liability where the opposite is the case.

(b) Amounts due from /(to) customers under construction contracts

3. Employee Benefits :

As per Indian Accounting Standard - 19 “ Employee Benefits” the disclosures of Employee Benefits are as follows :

(a) Defined Contribution Plan :

Employee benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Employee State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) are considered as defined contribution plan.

The contributions to the respective fund are made in accordance with the relevant statute and are recognised as expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contribution. The contributions to defined contribution plan, recognised as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss are as under :

(b) Defined Benefit Plans/Long Term Compensated Absences (On the basis of Acturial Valuation)

Leave Obligations

The leave oligations cover the Company liability for earned leaves. The amount of Provision of Rs. 13,54,891/- (as at 31st March, 2017 of Rs. 15,16,070/-) is bifurcated as Current and Non-current on the basis of Independent acturial report. Provision of Rs. 31,69,027/- as at 1st April, 2016 has not been sujected to Independent acturial report.

Gratuity

The gratuity plan is governed by the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972. Under the said Act, an employee who has completed five years of service is entitled to specific benefit. The Gratuity plan provides a lumpsum payment to employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment. The level of benefits provided depends on the member’s length of service and salary at retirement age etc.

Gratuity Benefits are funded in nature. The liabilities arising in the Defined Benefit Schemes are determined in accordance with the advice of independent, professionally qualified actuaries, using the projected unit credit method at the year end.

c) Risks related to defined benefit plans:

The main risks to which the Company is exposed in relation to operating defined benefit plans are :

i) Mortality risk : The assumptions adopted by the Company make allowances for future improvements in life expectancy. However, if life expectancy improves at a faster rate than assumed, this would result in greater payments from the plans and consequently increases in the plan’s liabilities. In order to minimise this risk, mortality assumptions are reviewed on a regular basis.

ii) Interest Rate Risk : The present value of Defined Benefit Plans liability is determined using the discount rate based on the market yields prevailing at the end of reporting period on Government bonds. A decrease in yields will increase the fund liabilities and vice-versa.

iii) Salary cost inflation risk : The present value of the defined benefit plan liability is calculated with reference to the future salaries of participants under the Plan. Increase in salary due to adverse inflationary pressures might lead to higher liabilities.

d) Asset - liability management and funding arrangements

The trustees are responsible for determining the investment strategy of plan assets. The overall investment policy and strategy for Company’s funded defined benefit plan is guided by the objective of achieving an investment return which, together with the contribution paid is sufficient to maintain reasonable control over various funding risks of the plan.

e) Other disclosures :

i) The following are the assumptions used to determine the benefit obligation:

a) Discount rate : The yield of government bonds are considered as the discount rate. The tenure has been considered taking into account the past long term trend of employees’ average remaining service life which reflects the average estimated term of the post - employment benefit obligations.

b) Rate of escalation in salary : The estimates of rate of escalation in salary, considered in actuarial valuation, take into account inflation, seniority, promotion and other relevant factors including supply and demand in the employment market. The above information is certified by the actuary.

c) Rate of return on plan assets : Rate of return for the year was the average yield of the portfolio in which Company’s plan assets are invested over a tenure equivalent to the entire life of the related obligation.

d) Attrition rate : Attrition rate considered is the management’s estimate based on the past long- term trend of employee turnover in the Company.

ii) The Gratuity and Provident Fund expenses have been recognised under “ Contribution to Provident and Other Funds” and Leave

Encashment under “ Salaries and Wages” under Note No. 30.

4. Segmment Reporting disclosures as per Ind AS-108 “Operating Segments”:

Operating Segments :

a) Freight and Services b) Petrol Pump c) Construction

Identification of Segments :

The chief operating decision maker monitor the operating results ofits business segments separately for the purpose of making decisions about resource allocation and performance assessment. Segment performance is evaluated based on profit or loss and is measured consistently with profit or loss in the financial statements. Operating segments have been identified on the basis of the nature of products/services and have been identified as per the quantitative criteria specified in the Ind AS.

Segment Revenue and Results:

The expenses and incomes which are not attributable to any business segment are shown as unallocated expenditure (net of unallocated income)

Segment Assets and Liabilities:

Segment assets include all operating assets used by the operating segment and mainly consist of property, plant and equipments, trade and other recievables, cash and cash equivalents, bank balance other than cash and cash equivalents etc. Segment liabilities primarily includes trade payables, borrowings and other liabilities.

Common assets and liabilities which cannot be allocated to any of the segments are shown as a part of unallocated Corporate assets/liabilities.

B. Fair Values Hierarchy

Financial assets and financial liabilities measured at fair value in the statement of financial position are Companied into three Levels of a fair value hierarchy. The three Levels are denied based on the observability of significant inputs to the measurement, as follows:

Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for financial instruments.

Level 2: The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined using valuation techniques which maximise the use of observable market data rely as little as possible on entity specific estimates.

Level 3: If one or more of the significant inputs is not based on observable market data, the instrument is included in level 3.

5. Lease disclosures :

a) Operating lease taken :

The Company’s significant leasing arrangements are in respect of operating leases for land and building premises (residential, office, stores, godowns etc.). These leasing arrangements which are not non-cancellable range between 11 months and 9 years generally, or longer, and are usually renewable by mutual consent on mutually agreeable terms. The aggregate lease rentals payable are charged as ‘Rent’ under Note 33.

b) Operating lease given

The Company has leased out office, stores and godown premises under non-cancellable operating leases.

6. Finacial risk management

The Company’s business activities are exposed to a variety of financial risks, namely liquidity risk, market risks and credit risk. The Company’s senior management has the overall responsibility for establishing and governing the Company’s financial risk management framework.

(A) Credit risk

Credit risk refers to risk that a counterparty will default on its contractual obligations resulting in financial loss to the Company. Credit risk arises primarily from financial assets such as trade receivables, bank balances, loans, investments and other financial assets.

At each reporting date, the Company measures loss allowance for certain class of financial assets based on historical trend, industry practices and the business environment in which the Company operates.

Credit risk with respect to trade receivables are limited, due to the Company’s customer profiles are well balanced in Government and Non-Government customers and diversified amongst in various construction verticals and geographies. All trade receivables are reviewed and assessed on a quarterly basis.

Credit risk arising from investments, derivative financial instruments and balances with banks is limited because the counterparties are banks and recognised financial institutions with high credit worthiness.

(i) Provision for expected credit losses

The Company measures Expected Credit Loss (ECL) for financial instruments based on historical trend, industry practices and the business environment in which the Company operates.

For financial assets, a credit loss is the present value of the difference between:

(a) the contractual cash flows that are due to an entity under the contract; and

(b) the cash flows that the entity expects to receive

The Company recognises in profit or loss, the amount of expected credit losses (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date in accordance with Ind AS 109.

In determination of the allowances for credit losses on trade receivables, the Company has used a practical expedience by computing the expected credit losses based on ageing matrix, which has taken into account historical credit loss experience and adjusted for forward looking information.

(ii) The movement of Trade Receivables and Expected Credit Loss are as follows :

*The company assesses at each date of balance sheet whether a financial asset or a group of financial asssets is impaired or not. Ind AS-109 “Financial instruments” requires expected credit losses to be measured through a loss allowance. The company has used a practical expedient and adjusted for forward looking information to compute expected credit losses. No provision for impairment of trade receivables has been made for the year 2017-18 as substanial amount of Rs. 17.78 crores out of Rs. 47.03 crores of trade receivables has been impaired on the transition date out of which Rs. 12.07 crores and Rs. 5.70 crore has been written off in the year 2016-17 and 2017-18 respectively. Moreover, during the year 2017-18, trade receivables of Rs. 34,28,421/- has been written off apart of provision earlier created.

a) Credit Risk Management

The finance function of the Company assesses and manages credit risk based on internal credit rating system. Internal credit rating is performed for each class of financial instruments with different characteristics. The Company assigns the following credit ratings to each class of financial assets based on the assumptions, inputs and factors specific to the class of financial assets.

A: No Risk B: Low Risk C: Medium Risk D: High Risk

The risk parameters are same for all financial assets for all period presented. The Company considers the probability of default upon initial recognition of asset and whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk on an on-going basis throughout each reporting period. In general, it is presumed that credit risk has significantly increased since initial recognition if the payments are more than (60 days past due) . A default on a financial asset is when the counterparty fails to make contractual payments when they fall due. This definition of default is determined by considering the business environment in which entity operates and other macro-economic factors.

b) Credit Risk Exposure

The Company provides for expected credit loss based on lifetime expected credit loss mechanism for trade receivables.

(B) Liquidity Risk

The Company’s objective is to maintain a balance between continuity of funding and flexibility through the use of cash credit facilities, short term loans and term loans.

The table below summarises the maturity profile of the Company’s financial liabilities:

7. Capital risk management

The Company’ s capital management objectives are :

- to ensure the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern

- to provide an adequate return to shareholders

The Company monitors capital on the basis of the carrying amount of equity less cash and cash equivalents as presented on the face of balance sheet. Management assesses the Company’s capital requirements in order to maintain an eficient overall financing structure while avoiding excessive leverage. This takes into account the subordination levels of the Company’s various classes of debt. The Company manages the capital structure and makes adjustments to it in the light of changes in economic conditions and the risk characteristics of the underlying assets. In order to maintain or adjust the capital structure, the Company may adjust the amount of dividends paid to shareholders, return capital to shareholders, issue new shares, or sell assets to reduce debt.

*Net Debt = Non - current liabilities Current liabilities - Deferred tax liabilities (net)

8. The Company has transferred certain assets and business contracts of Record Management business unit through an assets purchase agreement with effect from 01.03.2018 at a consideration of Rs. 7 Crores. The gain arising therefrom has been included in exceptional items in Profit & Loss Account.

9. First-time Adoption of Ind AS

a) These financial statements, for the year ended 31st March, 2018, are the first financial statements, the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS.

Accordingly, the Company has prepared financial statements which comply with Ind AS applicable for year ended 31st March, 2018, together with the comparative figures for the year ended 31st March, 2017, as described in the summary of significant accounting policies [Refer Note No.2-3].

The Company has prepared the opening Balance Sheet as per Ind AS as of 1st April, 2016 (the transition date) by:

a. recognising all assets and liabilities whose recognition is required by Ind AS,

b. not recognising items of assets or liabilities which are not permitted by Ind AS,

c. reclassifying items from previous Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to Ind AS as required under Ind AS, and

d. applying Ind AS in measurement of recognised assets and liabilities.

Reconciliations Between Previous GAAP and Ind AS

Ind AS 101 requires an entity to reconcile equity, total comprehensive income and cash lows for prior periods. The following tables represent the reconciliations from previous GAAP to Ind AS.

Notes on First time Ind AS adoption

I. Ind AS 101 mandates certain exceptions and allows first-time adopters exemptions from the retrospective application of certain requirements under Ind AS. The Company has applied the following exemptions in the financial statements:

a) Property, plant and equipment and intangible assets were carried in the Balance Sheet prepared in accordance with previous GAAP on 31st March, 2016. Under Ind AS, the Company has elected to regard such carrying values as deemed cost at the date of transition.

Further, the Company had revalued certain freehold land and buildings and had a balance of Rs. 3.14 Crores in revaluation reserve on the date of transition. On transition, such revaluation reserve has been adjusted in retained earnings.

b) The Company has applied Appendix C of Ind AS 17 (Leases) - ‘Determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease’ to determine whether an arrangement existing at the transition date contains a lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing at that date.

II. In addition to the above, the principal adjustments made by the Company in restating its previous GAAP financial statements, including the Balance Sheet as at 1st April, 2016 and the financial statements as at and for the year ended 31st March, 2017 are detailed below:

a) Under previous GAAP, non-current investments were stated at cost. Where applicable, provision was made to recognise a decline, other than temporary, in valuation of such investments. Under Ind AS, equity instruments have been classified as Fair Value through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOCI) through an irrevocable election at the date of transition.

However, since, the fair valuation has been done based on level 3 inputs, difference in fair value and cost as on the date of transition deferred and has been considered and shown as “Deferred gain on changes in fair value of financial assets”under Other Non-Current Liabilities.

b) Under previous GAAP, actuarial gains and losses related to the defined benefit schemes for gratuity were recognised in profit or loss. Under Ind AS, the actuarial gains and losses form part of remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability/asset which is recognised in OCI. Consequently, the tax effect of the same has also been recognised in OCI instead of profit or loss.

c) Under previous GAAP, transaction costs incurred towards origination of borrowings were recognised in profit or loss. Under Ind AS, transaction costs incurred towards origination of borrowings is deducted from the carrying amount of borrowings on initial recognition. These costs are recognized in the statement of profit and loss over the tenure of the borrowing as part of the finance cost by applying the effective interest method.

d) Under previous GAAP, financial assets and security deposits paid were initially recognized at transaction price. Subsequently, any finance income were recognized based on contractual terms. Under Ind AS, such financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value and subsequently carried at amortised cost determined using the effective interest rate. Any difference between transaction price and fair value affects profit and loss unless it quantifies for recognition as some other type of asset.

e) The Company has changed retrospectively its accounting policy regarding recognising sale of service with respect to transportation under Percentage of completion method. However, this has no impact in opening reserve on the date of transition.

f) The previous Indian GAAP required deferred tax accounting using the income statement approach, which focuses on differences between taxable profits and accounting profits for the period. Ind AS 12 requires entities to account for deferred taxes using the balance sheet approach, which focuses on temporary differences between the carrying amount of an asset or liability in the balance sheet and its tax base. The application of Ind AS 12 approach has resulted in recognition of deferred tax assets/liabilities on new temporary differences which was not required under pervious Indian GAAP. However, in the absence of probability of realising the deferred tax assets, the same has not been recognised.

g) Retained earnings and statement of profit and loss has been adjusted consequent to the Ind AS transition adjustments with corresponding impact to deferred tax, wherever applicable.

h) Under previous GAAP, book overdraft, were reflected in cash flows from operating activities in cash flow statement. Under Ind AS, such amount are included in cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement.

10. Standards issued but not yet effective

The standard issued, but not yet effective up to the date of issuance of the Company financial statements is disclosed below. The Company intends to adopt this standard when it becomes effective.

Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Ind AS 115 was issued in February 2015 and establishes a five step model to account for revenue arising from contracts with customers. Under Ind AS 115 revenue is recognised at an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer. The new revenue standard will supersede all current revenue recognition requirements under Ind AS. This standard will come into force from accounting period commencing on or after 1st April 2018. The Company will adopt the new standard on the required effective date. During the current year, the Company performed a preliminary assessment of Ind AS 115, which is subject to changes arising from a more detailed ongoing analysis.

Amendment to Ind AS 7:

In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards)(Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendment to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of Cash Flows’. This amendment is in accordance with the recent amendment made by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to IAS 7. The amendments is applicable to the company from April 1, 2017. The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash flow items, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.The company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and the effect on the financial statements is being evaluated.

11. The previous year’s including figures as at the date of transition have been reworked, regrouped, rearranged and reclassified wherever necessary. Amounts and other disclosures for the preceding year including figures as at the date of transition are included as an integral part of the current year financial statements and are to be read in relation to the amounts and other disclosures relating to the current year.

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